Researchers Track Cultural Change Google Books Word Database

Google has viagra epocrates viagra wiki converted almost 15 million books into electronic documents — around 15 percent of all the books ever published. Five million of those, or about 500 billion words, have http://onlinepharmacy-viagra.com/ gone online in a searchable database that researchers have already used to study cultural change.

The words, which come from books published in kamagra store the last four centuries in English, Spanish, French, German, Chinese, Russian and Hebrew, are void of all context except the year, avoiding canadian viagra any copyright violations. The database, called the Ngram Viewer, allows you to graph how often a word — or multiple buy viagra online words — viagraonline-cheapbest appears in texts viagra canada over the counter of any given language. generic viagra For instance, you can see how Western culture has secularized where to buy viagra in the last 150 years by looking at the prevalence of the word “God” in English-language texts.

Censorship becomes significantly more visible. If viagra for women you search for the names of some prominent Jews, such as Albert Einstein or artist Marc Chagall, in German-language literature, you’ll see that the nadir is in the early 1940s, during the Nazi regime — whereas in English-language literature, the trajectories continue upwards throughout the century. The trend can be replicated with kamagra cialis online reviews Trotsky in Russian and Tiananmen Square in Chinese.

The database allows safe place to buy cialis online researchers to study a number of interesting trends — many of which are published in the journal Science — including fame, grammatical changes, even cialis vs kamagra diseases. Of course, the knowledge you can glean from the database is by no means a complete representation of a culture during a given time frame; only certain kinds of people write books and manage to get them published. But it provides a fascinating window into a levitra reviews language’s history nonetheless.

Claire Perlman

Claire Perlman is a senior at UC Berkeley who covers Technapex's higher education beat. She is majoring in English literature and worked at her college’s student newspaper, The Daily Californian, for two years as a science reporter and news editor. She is currently working at UC Berkeley’s Mark Twain Project transcribing Twain’s letters and unpublished manuscripts.

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About Claire Perlman

Claire Perlman is a senior at UC Berkeley who covers Technapex's higher education beat. She is majoring in English literature and worked at her college’s student newspaper, The Daily Californian, for two years as a science reporter and news editor. She is currently working at UC Berkeley’s Mark Twain Project transcribing Twain’s letters and unpublished manuscripts.